Finding PFOA and PFOS in your wastewater residuals or biosolids?  Do you question what concentrations are acceptable for land application?
There are means to determine acceptable concentrations.  Most residuals and biosolids meet US EPA soil screening levels for contact, inhalation, and ingestion.  However, determining the acceptable concentrations to protect the groundwater resource can be a challenge because these compounds are not retained very well in mineral soil. 
Natural Resource Solutions LLC devises management options utilizing the US EPA Standardized Reasonable Maximum Exposure Equation.  This equation takes into account the organic carbon in a substrate, which is critical because PFOA and PFOS have a strong affinity to the organic carbon in soils amended with residuals and biosolids.  
If you want to know more, or have Natural Resource Solutions LLC evaluate your residuals or biosolids, please contact us.

     New Service Offering

Natural Resource Solutions LLC has updated its lab in 2018 to offer microbial enumerations, which is important in assessing soil health.  It can also provide insight on potential toxicity of a byproducts being evaluated for land application, composting or soil blending.  This new service compliments our other inhouse services, which includes greenhouse, field plot studies, nitrogen mineralization, and incubation studies.